The bottom of the pond is the "energy bank" of the water body, as well as the "pollution source" and the "hotbed of germs". The fish-raisers all know the saying "fish-farming first raises water, however, it is not necessarily that many people know about" raising water first and raising the bottom ". This sentence shows the key role of pond bottom in aquaculture. If the bottom is good, the water quality is naturally good; the water quality is good, but the bottom quality is not necessarily good. Water body is the environment where fish and shrimp grow, survive and live. However, the interaction between pond bottom and water can strongly affect the water quality. Therefore, if we want to keep water well, we must start with the improvement of pond bottom, we must pay full attention to the management of pond bottom. In order to make the pond culture develop sustainably and protect the water and soil resources of the pond reasonably, it is necessary to improve and repair the deteriorated bottom of the pond.
The quality of the bottom directly affects the water quality. The quality of the water is the manifestation of the bottom. Usually people know the change of the bottom through the change of the water quality. Improving the bottom quality is the basis of improving the water quality. The pathogen grows and reproduces through the organic pollution at the pond bottom, and then spreads through the water body. Therefore, "keeping water first and raising the bottom" is the real "keeping fish first and raising water first".
I. the deterioration of the bottom of the pool
The deterioration of the bottom of the pond generally shows that the bottom mud is black and the water body is smelly. In reality, many fishponds can't cure the disease for a long time or the water quality is poor, but they can't adjust well all the time. Maybe the problem lies in the "bottom", because some fishponds haven't been cleared for many years or even more than ten years, or the fish stocking does not match with the bottom fish (such as carp and crucian carp) and filter-feeding fish (such as carp and Bighead), all kinds of reasons can be found, but it is not particularly noticeable.
If fish grow in an environment of hypoxia or poor bottom for a long time, their activity ability will obviously decline and seriously affect their growth. Organic matter in the bottom will decompose in large quantities when the water temperature rises, which will consume a large amount of dissolved oxygen in the water and produce various toxic and harmful substances. In light, it will affect the growth, and in severe cases, it will lead to anoxia flooding the pond and even death. Regular use of water quality regulator (such as quick lime) and bottom-modified products to increase the bottom layer of dissolved oxygen, which can achieve fresh water quality, clean bottom, sufficient dissolved oxygen, and promote the normal growth and development of fish.
II. Reasons for deterioration of pool bottom
The root cause of the deterioration of bottom material lies in the continuous accumulation of organic matter. The deterioration of bottom material produces hydrogen sulfide, ammonia gas and other toxic gases, which are easy to cause the deterioration of water quality in the water body. At the same time, a large amount of excessive organic matter provides nutrition for pathogenic bacteria in the bottom mud, and pathogenic bacteria take the opportunity to reproduce in large quantities, which is easy to aggravate the incidence probability and degree of fish.
1. Incomplete clearing of ponds, including improper use of drugs in clearing ponds, insufficient time for drying or freezing ponds, etc.
2. Excessive accumulation of organic matter at the bottom of the pond is caused by reasons such as redundant and wasted feed feeding, fertilizer not used up by plankton, residual animal and plant corpses, fish feces, rot of aquatic plants and Moss, etc, they all accumulate at the bottom to form thick organic pollutants. The "oxygen debt" at the bottom intensifies, and these organic matters are propagated and decomposed by anaerobic bacteria at the bottom to produce toxic substances, causing the bottom to stink, which will cause great harm to the breeding animals.
3. A large number of frequent filling and changing water (especially muddy water and heavy rain wash muddy water into the pond), a large number of chemical fertilizers and so on cause the bottom mud to be thickened, the bottom to be hardened, the pond fertilizer retention effect is weakened, it is easy to cause water quality problems such as muddy water and difficult fertilizer.
4. The depth of the aquaculture water is out of line with the ability of oxygenation. The aquaculture water is too deep, and the amount of oxygenation in the water is not enough to meet the requirements, which causes the long-term shortage of dissolved oxygen at the bottom of the water and the corruption and odor at the bottom. The installation position of the aerator is improper, and the installation of the aerator fails to form an angle with the wall of the pool, resulting in a large number of dirty things being brought to the corner of the pool to form a dead angle, and the bottom layer will be smelly easily after a long time.
5. Excessive and fertile sludge, coupled with long-term unclean ponds, incomplete clean ponds, no exposure to the sun or freezing the bottom of the ponds, etc. are also the causes of bottom problems.
6. The stocking density is high, the feeding amount is large, and the corresponding residual bait and feces are also large. It may make the pond lose its ecological balance gradually, the self-purification function of the bottom of the pond is lost, and the bottom is deteriorating day by day.
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